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Many  cosmetic  sprays,  particularly hair  care  products and  fragrances, are sold in aerosol  containers. The first  aerosol  patent was  actually issued  in 1899  but  was not   used   until   1940,   when   insecticides  were   first  packaged  in  self-dispensing  gas- pressurized containers. Freon,  the  most  commonly used  group  among  aerosol  gases,  is a lung  irritant and  central  nervous system   depressant  and  in  high  concentrations  can cause  coma.  More  than   a  hundred people,   mostly   young   Americans, have  died  from sniɽng aerosol  gases  for  “kicks.”  These  gases  can  cause  severe  irregular heartbeat. In addition to Freon,  hair  sprays  contain PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone, se e ) or shellac.  PVP is believed to  be  cancer-causing. In  addition, thesaurosis, a  condition in  which  there  are foreign  bodies  in the  lungs,  has  been  found  in persons  subjected to repeated inhalation of   hairsprays.  The   aerosol    container  can   become    a   lethal    weapon,  acting    as   a flamethrower if near  a fire and a shrapnel bomb  if heated. It has been  known  to explode when  placed  too  near  a  radiator or  heater. Also,  aerosol  gases  turn   into  toxic  gases: fluorine,  chlorine, hydrogen fluoride,  and  chloride, or even  phosgene, a military poison gas.    Aerosol     hair     dyes    and     “hot”     shave     creams     were     made     possible     by compartmentalization of  the  container.  However, in  the  case  of  the  hot  shave  cream, there   was  unreliable  mixing   of  the   chemicals  and   skin   rashes   resulted.  In  powder products, the  inhalation of powder or the  silicones  can  damage the  lungs.  In 1972,  the Society  of  Cosmetic  Chemists  reported that   powder aerosols   evidence a  high  particle retention  in  the  lungs  and  profound  pulmonary  eʃects.  Tests  showed   large   powder particles in twenty-three separate areas  of the  lungs.  In addition, Freon,  the  propellant, cannot  be  considered  inert,   that   is,  lacking   in  chemical  activity  or  in  an  expected biologic   or  pharmacologic  eʃect.  Many   products  have   been   placed   in  hand   pump containers because of the concern about  aerosols.

Aloe barbadensis extract

Amyl cinnamal


Arctium lappa extract

Arnica montana extract


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the genus Arnica. For the species, see Arnica montana.
This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation,footnoting, or external linking(November 2009)
Arnica montana Ill.Koehler
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Madiinae
Genus: Arnica L.
See text.
Arnica /ˈɑrnɨkə/ is a genus with about 30 perennial, herbaceous species, belonging to the sunflower family (Asteraceae). The genus name Arnica may be derived from the Greek arna, "lamb," in reference to the soft, hairy leaves. This circumboreal and montane (subalpine) genus occurs mostly in the temperate regions of western North America, while two are native to Eurasia (A. angustifolia and A. montana).[citation needed] Arnica used to be included in the tribe Senecioneae because it has a flower or pappus of fine bristles. This was soon questioned and Nordenstam (1977) placed it tentatively in tribe Heliantheae s.l.[citation needed] This arrangement also became uncertain because of the sesquiterpene lactone chemistry in certain species. Lately Arnica was placed in an unresolved clade together with MadiinaeEupatorieaeHeliantheae s.s. and Pectidinae.[citation needed] Several species, such as Arnica montana and A. chamissonis, contain helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is a major ingredient in anti-inflammatorypreparations (used mostly for bruises). Arnica species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix arnicella. Arnica is also known by the names Mountain Tobacco and, somewhat confusingly, Leopard's bane and Wolfsbane—two names that it shares with the entirely separate genus Aconitum.    


Frigid Arnica near a training radar site in the Alaskan Interior.
Arnica plants have a deep-rooted, erect stem that is usually unbranched. Their downy opposite leaves are borne towards the apex of the stem. The ovoid, leathery basal leaves are arranged in a rosette. They show large yellow or orange flowers, 6–8 cm wide with 10–15 long ray florets and numerous disc florets. The phyllaries (a bract under the flowerhead) has long spreading hairs Each phyllary is associated with a ray floret. Species of Arnica, with an involucre (a circle of bracts arranged surrounding the flower head) arranged in two rows, have only their outer phyllaries associated with ray florets. The flowers have a slight aromatic smell. If taken in the wrong dose it can be very dangerous. The seedlike fruit has a pappus of plumose, white or pale tan bristles. The entire plant has a strong and distinct pine-sage odor when the leaves of mature plants are rubbed or bruised.

Arnica montana[edit]

The species Arnica montana, native to Europe, has long been used medicinally, but this use has not been substantiated.[1][2]

Medicinal uses[edit]

Arnica montana has been used medicinally for centuries. Arnica is used in liniment and ointment preparations used for strainssprains, and bruises. Commercial Arnica preparations are frequently used by professional athletes.[3] According to The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, "A few clinical trials suggest benefits of topical arnica for osteoarthritis; and for affecting significant reduction of bruising compared to placebo or low concentration vitamin K ointments." [4] A study of wound-healing after surgery to treat varicose veins found no statistically significant proof of efficacy.[5]


Arnica contains the toxin helenalin, which can be poisonous if large amounts of the plant are eaten, and contact with the plant can also cause skin irritation.[6][7] If enough of the material is ingested, the toxin helenalin produces severe gastroenteritis, and internal bleeding of the digestive tract.[8]Homeopathic preparations of Arnica 24X dilution or more are neither toxic nor effective as negligible amounts of Arnica remain.[9][10][11]


Homeopathic preparations of Arnica are widely marketed and used. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency has registered the product for sprains and bruising under the National Rules for Homoeopathic Products (2006). These rules allow claims of efficacy for these conditions to be made on the packaging in the absence of similar evidence to that required for conventional medicines under the Medicines Act 1968 and 1971.[12] A systematic review of clinical trials showed that homeopathic Arnica was no more effective than a placebo.[13] In some quarters, the fact that homeopathic Arnica has been the subject of published clinical trials at all has drawn criticism grounded on the allegation that the basic premise of the high dilutions used in homeopathy would be inherently flawed.[11]



  • Mountain Arnica (Arnica montana)
  • Longleaf Arnica (Arnica longifolia)


  1. Jump up^ "Arnica in Flora of North America". Retrieved 2009-12-22.
  2. Jump up^ Deliu, C. (September 2001 pages=581–585 publisher=Society for In Vitro Biology). "Clonal propagation of Arnica montana L., a medicinal plant". In Vitro Cellular and Development Biology - Plant 37 (5).
  3. Jump up^ Jenna Sumara (2006). "Arnica: the natural alternative for treating sore muscles". The Final Sprint. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
  4. Jump up^ "Arnica"Cancer Care - Integrative Medicine. The Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  5. Jump up^ M. Wolfa, C. Tamaschkeb, W. Mayerc, M. Heger (2003). "Wirksamkeit von Arnica bei Varizenoperation: Ergebnisse einer randomisierten, doppelblinden, Placebo-kontrollierten Pilot-Studie"Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde 10: 242–247.
  6. Jump up^ "Poisonous Plants: Arnica montana". Retrieved 2009-12-22.
  7. Jump up^ Edward Rudzki; Zdzisława Grzywa (May 1977). "Dermatitis from Arnica montana". Contact Dermatitis 3 (5): 281. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1977.tb03682.xPMID 145351.
  8. Jump up^ Gregory L. Tilford. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the WestISBN 0-87842-359-1.
  9. Jump up^ "Dynamization and Dilution". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
  10. Jump up^ Vaughan, John Griffith; Patricia Ann Judd, David Bellamy (2003). The Oxford Book of Health Foods. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-19-850459-4.
  11. Jump up to:a b Youngson, RM (April 1997). "Randomized trial of homeopathic Arnica"Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90 (4): 239–240. PMC 1296246PMID 9155774. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  12. Jump up^ "Arnica registered by medicines regulator"Telegraph. 16 May 2009.
  13. Jump up^ E. Ernst; M. H. Pittler (November 1998). "Efficacy of Homeopathic Arnica:A Systematic Review of Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials"Archives of Surgery 133 (11): 1187–1190.

Further sources[edit]

  • Maguire, B.; Gilly, C. L (1943). "A monograph of the genus Arnica (Senecioneae, Compositae)". Brittonia (New York Botanical Garden Press) 4 (3): 386–510. doi:10.2307/2804900.JSTOR 2804900.
  • Wolf, S.J. & K.E. Denford (1984). "Taxonomy of Arnica (Compositae) subgenus Austromontana". Rhodora 86 (847): 239–309.
  • Nordenstam, B. 1977 Senecioneae and Liabeae—systematic review. In V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne, and B. L. Turner [eds.], The biology and chemistry of the Compositae, vol. II, 799–830. Academic Press, London, UK
  • Baldwin, B. G. (1999). "New combinations in Californian Arnica and Monolopia". Novon (Missouri Botanical Garden Press) 9 (4): 460–461. doi:10.2307/3392142JSTOR 3392142.
  • Lyss, G., T. J. Schmidt, H. L. Pahl, and I. Merfort (1999). "Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica tincture (DAB 1998) using the transcription factor NF-kappaB as molecular target".Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters 9: 5–8.
  • Wolf, S. J., and K. E. Denford (1984). "Taxonomy of Arnica (Compositae) subgenus Austromontana". Rhodora 86: 239–309.
  • Stevinson, C., Devaraj, V. S., Fountain-Barber, A., Hawkins, S. and Ernst, E. (2003). "Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 96(2): 60–65.

External links[edit]

Look up arnica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the1911 Encyclopædia Britannicaarticle Arnica.

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harmful substance We have made sure that NONE of the barbuto maya natural products contain this ingredient or other potentially harmful substances and chemicals.   Purpose: Strips grease from the hair by corrosion and makes shampoo spread out and penetrate. It enters the skin very easily and remains in tissues (especially brain, heart and liver tissues) for a relatively long time.   Use: Found in 90 per cent of all commercial shampoos and in many other health and beauty items, especially skin creams and toothpastes. SLS has been prohibited in bubble baths because it has an adverse affect on skin protection and causes rashes and infection. It is also found in industrial cleaners. Laboratory clinical trials use SLS as an irritant to test the effectiveness of healing agents.   Health effects: Transported through the bloodstream, SLS/SLES will build up in the heart, liver, lungs, brain and eyes. It will be retained in tissues for a long time and could cause the following effects:  

  • Cancer - SLS/SLES reacts with other chemicals to form cancer-causing nitrosamines and dioxane;
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